Sats and Coins

There are several different ways of expressing amounts in Sapio.

That there isn't a single canonical way to represent amounts is unfortunate, and hopefully these types can be fully unified in the future. But it's a problem for good reason.

A brief rant

Suppose I tell you to send 10 to Alice. Is that 10 sats? or 10 bitcoin? You might think that 10.0 would be unambiguous, but it turns out the lightning network is building sub-satoshi support.

The only way to make context-free unambiguous amounts is to have them explicitly tagged, e.g., {denom: "sats", amount: 10}.

This would be great, but there are already myriads of services out there where the only way to know what unit you have is to RTFM.

Generally, we know that floating point representations are evil for financial transactions, but because we want to be compatible with JSON/Javascript, we don't quite have a choice. Fortunately, 21e6 Bitcoin with 8 places fit exactly into floats without loss. However, bets are off when doing arithmetic with such values.

A last wrinkle: Bitcoin's amount type is a signed integer. Rust-bitcoin uses an Unsigned integer. So in theory there are unrepresentable amounts we're happy to work with. Great.

It's up to every programmer

Therefore, to get amounts right is a task that is up to the programmer largely to get this right. There are a few different amount types to be aware of.

  1. u64 represents sats. may be too big!
  2. i64 represents sats. may be too small!
  3. bitcoin::Amount represents u64, no standard serialization.
  4. bitcoin::SignedAmount represents i64, no standard serialization.
  5. bitcoin::CoinAmount standard tagged serialization, either u64 or f64.

These different types have uses in different circumstances.

Because bitcoin::Amount does not have a standard serializer, in order to use it in e.g. a Vec, you have to wrap the type with a serializer. From impls can make life a little easier to work with these.

fn main() {
use bitcoin::util::amount::Amount;

use schemars::JsonSchema;
use serde::{Deserialize, Serialize};

/// A wrapper around `bitcoin::Amount` to force it to serialize with f64.
    Serialize, Deserialize, JsonSchema, Clone, Copy, Debug, Ord, PartialOrd, PartialEq, Eq,
struct AmountF64(
    #[schemars(with = "f64")]
    #[serde(with = "bitcoin::util::amount::serde::as_btc")]

impl From<Amount> for AmountF64 {
    fn from(a: Amount) -> AmountF64 {
impl From<AmountF64> for Amount {
    fn from(a: AmountF64) -> Amount {

CoinAmount does not have this problem, but it can't be used in all contexts, e.g. external APIs that aren't tagged.

Don't Panic (or do)

A final annoyance is that bitcoin::Amount has arithmetic that may panic (unless you use the checked_ variants). So one must be careful to ensure that any set of values passed in are safe to add.

Sapio currently does not do a fantastic job of this, but that can be improved in the future.